Cropped at the lower edge of the print, laundry hangs from a line suspended between walls as testament to the everyday lives of the city’s residents. Brewster’s declared admiration for the work of Goupil-Fesquet, reproduced in graphic form in this instance by Frédéric Martens, may have been prompted not only by imperialist frameworks but also by its perceived relevance for issues then faced by the town calotypists of St Andrews. The Brewster Album includes calotype portraits of and by Craigie Brewster, Furlong, and Pakenham Edgeworth, testifying to the pursuit and exchange of calotypes between local hosts and visitors to St Andrews. For example, an outdoor group calotype of David Brewster with Mary Playfair, Juliet Brewster, Pakenham Edgeworth, and the family biographer Margaret Maria Brewster, highlights the sitting as a social act that fostered ties with neighbours and guests (fig. 10). On his departure in November 1843, Pakenham Edgeworth gifted Brewster a cyanotype by Sir John Herschel in gratitude for his hospitality.38 Scholars have diligently documented these exchanges of correspondence and calotypes, but the main point extends beyond the particulars of individual dates and contacts. St Andrews was a site of ongoing exchange that extended overseas to Ireland and India and that embraced the calotype and integrated its social functions into these colonial networks from the outset. The local enthusiasm for the calotype was inseparable from its wider exchange and diffusion in correspondence with distant family and friends.

  1. The War, they argue, did correct a fundamental flaw in the American Revolution – that it had tolerated the evil of slavery – but now that people were free, they should largely be left to their own devices.
  2. For a poor-quality reproduction of the Tartan Album print, see Harley and Harley, “The ‘Tartan Album’”, 313, plate 12.
  3. Such practices have often been viewed as supplemental rather than oppositional to Islam, particularly when they are seen as effective or operating outside of the central concerns of the faith.
  4. The second section examines David Brewster’s influential essays on photography, attending specifically to his formative advocacy of the potential imperialist applications of the calotype.
  5. The Malian king Mansa Musa (r. 1312–37) brought back from a pilgrimage to Mecca the architect al-Sahili, who is often credited with the creation of the Sudano-Sahelian building style.
  6. The significant rise in the number of women interested in football, some even braving the hitherto macho monoculture of the stadium, has cemented this.

The Victorian family photograph album was a crucial means by which such practices, codes, identifications, and exclusions—and the project of its ongoing curation and articulation—extended the obligations and mythologies of empire into the institution of the home and the formation of subject identities. In its detailed inventory of each calotype, George Ranken’s letter retraces the town in the diasporic imagination on temporal and spatial coordinates. The calotypes before him evinced a return to a past and a place that evoked childhood remembrances of an unchanged hometown beyond modernity and that anchored provincial identities in the concurrent pursuit of empire. That the Playfairs conceived of themselves over generations as intrinsic to St Andrews and the British Raj highlights the entangled nature of these projects and their prompt recognition and deployment of the calotype at home and abroad towards its continued reiteration. Calotyping, writing, sending, and viewing were repeated and interdependent practices of personal pleasure and mutual exchange that bound the colonial recipient and the “dear old City”. George Ranken’s letters emphasise the continued importance of and nostalgia for St Andrews for its former residents and the role of its photography in the negotiation of diasporic colonial identities. Despite initial reluctance, the Jordanian government eventually established Zaatari Camp in July 2012, which now has a population of 150,000, and earlier this year authorised the opening of another camp at Al-Azraq.

Our History

The first converts were the Sudanese merchants, followed by a few rulers and courtiers . In the eleventh century, the Almoravid intervention, led by a group of Berber nomads who were strict observers of Islamic law, gave the conversion process a new momentum in the Ghana empire and beyond.

global regents enduring issues

Meanwhile, international suspicions about Hussein’s clandestine quest for atomic weapons plagued Iraq’s relationship with the West until the turn of the 21st century. Kissinger proceeded to expand diplomatic contacts with the Saudi monarchy and earnestly began building America’s own bilateral partnerships in the Gulf — all while turning his back on his previous multilateral initiatives. The energy crisis would now be resolved bilaterally, and on the United States and Saudi Arabia’s terms. Thus, while the contours of the new relationship remained to be defined, the American embrace of oil bilateralism became visible for the whole world to see.

Helmuth von Moltke and the Origins of the First World War

#5 Choose the one issue, which is related to at least three documents and you know it has endured over time. Meet ourEditorial Board and deputy editor, and find out a bit more about the history of Reviews. Despite spurious claims being made in some quarters about ‘a new consensus’, the history of fascism remains a bitterly contested area, even if, notwithstanding the Irving Trial, most contests occur in the seminar room rather than the courtroom. How tempting it would be to begin a review of his latest book in this vein. Join us throughout the year as we celebrate our heritage and look to the future with special experiences and events.

Family albums and scrapbooks of distant places and travels abroad are dispersed throughout the archives of the University of St Andrews, testifying to the global networks and prolonged involvement of local families in imperial pursuits. What is the association between colonial photographs and those photographic materials that appear, at least in terms of their subject matter, to concern the families and sites of St Andrews? To approach these materials as interconnected histories is to question a dialectic of binding and unbinding to their location. Place seems to matter in the assessment of local family albums, whereas the colonial photographs in the archive are consigned to other—distant—realms, histories, and academic interests. This separation divorces local histories from the archival evidence of their enmeshment over generations in the global flows of people, capital, and materials.

About the University

Professor Saul Dubow, Smuts Professor of Commonwealth History, Faculty of History and Fellow, Magdalene College – Saul has written extensively about the history of racial science in South Africa, from paleontology and human origins, to psychology, history, medicine, and anthropology. His ongoing interests lie in the history of segregation and apartheid; in Commonwealth, imperial and post-colonial history; in the history of science; and in the political dimensions of global intellectual thought. Twain initiated a tendency to accord the Civil War a more profound legacy than it merits. Largely this tendency revolves around slavery and emancipation in respect of the betrayal of the opportunity that the war provided to secure social, economic and political equality for all. Although the Civil War did expand the power of the American state, increasing the number of federal employees almost tenfold, the power of this state was limited in significant ways. Then, as now, there was often a disconnect between what the law allowed and what the government and the people actually did.

  1. Instead a huge slice of the government’s fast-swelling advertising budget was redirected towards football.
  2. A breakthrough oil-for-reactors deal between France and Iran prompted other governments from West Germany to Japan to scramble for the Persian Gulf’s oil and petrodollars.
  3. Workers in both countries complain that Syrians have driven down wages – and Syrians complain that they are exploited by employers.
  4. Highlights include BBC GNS ; Agence France Presse ; RTE radio and television ; Channel 4 News ; BBC Radio 4’s The World Tonight special broadcast ; Al Jazeera America’s ‘Inside Story’ as well as radio and television documentaries for BBC Essex, BBC Look East and BBC Devon.
  5. The recent winner of the World History AssociationBently book prize onStatelessness.
  6. And yet, during the two-year window following the onset of the oil crisis, the West’s need to recycle Gulf petrodollars through bilateral trade agreements outweighed conflicting geopolitical and nonproliferation imperatives.

I don’t need all this, just the number.’ So I turned to the final page of the conclusion and pointed to the figure I thought the AFA should be getting for its television rights—600m pesos (approximately £27.5m). Grondona tore the page out of the brief, folded it, neatly placed it in his jacket pocket and left.” Grondona went to see Clarin and gave them one last chance to up the money, which they declined.

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Giving any form of aid to Iran would worsen France’s current account deficit.28 And yet, Blancard had few options but to accept the shah’s terms. The post-colonial world suddenly had a say in the economic future of the industrialized world. Given France’s total dependence on oil imports, the country was particularly affected by OPEC’s decision to radically increase the price of oil. That year, gasoline prices were expected to rise by 20 percent, domestic fuel oil prices by 60 percent, and heavy fuels by a staggering 120 percent.5 This already precarious situation was further complicated by an unexpected accident. In December 1973, the Algerian gas terminal at Skikda — from which France obtained 15 percent of its natural gas supplies — broke down, right in the midst of a cold winter, leading the French government to ration gas to consumers. Throughout this article “empire” constitutes a geopolitical and historical reality of occupation and dispossession that constantly sought to impose, stabilise, and expand asymmetrical relations of domination and subjugation as intrinsic to coloniser and colonised.

global regents enduring issues

Given that the majority of refugees will remain outside camps, it is worth examining what this means for the communities they have settled amongst. The concentration of Syrian refugees in areas along the border and in certain definition of reflective essay towns is placing strains on services such as schooling and housing. Schools in parts of Lebanon and Jordan are resorting to double shifts to cope; rents in parts of Jordan rose 300% in the six months before April 2013.

Inventing Provinciality: St Andrews and the Global Networks of Early Victorian Photography

For good historical reasons many Syrians approach camp life with trepidation. Uprooted Syrians have lived their lives in close proximity to generations of Palestinian refugees since 1948. For Syrians informed by the Palestinian experience camps may represent permanent exile, exclusion from the host society and physical danger. When Palestinian refugees housed in camps started to organise themselves politically in the 1960s, their aims and aspirations clashed with those of host governments, and ultimately threatened their sovereignty. In its conflict with the PLO, Israel did not hesitate to target the states hosting it. In Jordan this process led to the expulsion of the PLO leadership, after a short but bitter conflict in 1970, to Lebanon – where the same process contributed to the outbreak of a 15-year civil war. It is little wonder that Jordan is uneasy about placing Syrians in camps, and Lebanon positively allergic to doing so.

By exacerbating self-interested nationalism, the energy crisis exposed the weakness of European cooperation and caused rifts at the heart of the Atlantic alliance. The French government became frustrated by the lack of solidarity among members of the European Economic Community and opted to “go it alone” in its own bilateral dealings with OPEC states as a desperate solution to its energy and balance of payments problems, challenging Kissinger’s calls for Western unity.

FM Global Group

But has there really been a ‘global colour line’ in the past, and if so when was it drawn, whom did it divide, and does it still operate? The Centre for Geopolitics Cambridge and Cambridge in America have convened a panel of experts to discuss this pressing question in its wider historical and political context.

  1. American and French policymakers were aware of both the shah’s and Hussein’s ambiguous intentions even before these nuclear agreements were signed.
  2. Lionel Messi, the nation’s greatest contemporary player, has not started a single professional game in the country, spending his entire career at Barcelona.
  3. The atmosphere and noise levels exceeded the average Premier League game by some way, and were given shape and volume by the organised fan groups that occupied the terraces behind the goal.
  4. The post-colonial world suddenly had a say in the economic future of the industrialized world.
  5. Islam brought to Africa the art of writing and new techniques of weighting.
  6. While officially espousing a rhetoric of ‘inclusiveness’, selection and stereotype have nonetheless been common.
  7. According to enduring issues essay rubric, a good outline can help you concentrate during the writing process.

MacGregor Knox has been working for a long time on a comparative analysis of the fascist dictatorships, and is one of a line of US or US-trained historians who have breathed life into the recent study of contemporary European history by using a comparative approach. With period poverty an enduring issue in the UK, Gabby Edlin founded Bloody Good Period to address the fact that very few food banks and asylum seeker drop-in centres were providing feminine hygiene products on a regular basis. What started as a whip-round on Facebook is now a growing enterprise with a mission to end period poverty. 122 Uranium Naturel Graphite Gaz reactor technology was developed in France in the 1950s, using graphite gas instead of water in the cooling system and natural uranium as fuel, while allowing for a simpler extraction of weapons-grade plutonium.

Colledge Essay Topics Ideas

It seeks to foreground the colonialist networks of some of the town’s principal families and argues that these investments ensured the avid reception and circulation of the calotype process and its products along well-established diasporic routes. In the latter section, David Brewster’s essays on photography will be assessed for their foundational statements on the camera’s potential imperialist applications. Brewster’s writings demonstrate the conceptual frameworks of empire that underpinned the adoption of photography in St Andrews. This article argues against the 1984 book essay implicit associations that attend “provincial” photographic archives as circumscribed by local histories, geographies, and civic concerns. By doing so, it questions the politics of provincialising historiographies that disregard the extensive colonial networks of rural and small-town communities in the assessment of their photographic activities and vast archival legacies. The volume contains such impressive prints as a view of Beirut, with its graphic play of shadowed and sunlit interconnecting walls in the foreground and the open hills and sky behind (fig. 16).

  1. Given its negotiated, practical approach to different cultural situations, it is perhaps more appropriate to consider Islam in Africa in terms of its multiple histories rather then as a unified movement.
  2. Brewster’s two essays demonstrate the centrality of photography’s imperial potential to his thinking in 1840s St Andrews.
  3. The effort has stirred expanded interest and guidance from international organizations such as the World Health Organization and the World Bank, and led to new platforms for developing countries to learn from each other.
  4. Uprooted Syrians have lived their lives in close proximity to generations of Palestinian refugees since 1948.
  5. To mark International Women’s Day Liberty London has teamed up with Bloody Good Period, a charity project on a mission to create a sustainable flow of period products for asylum seekers, refugees and those who cannot afford them.
  6. An early example of this was noted by Ibn Battuta, the Maghribi scholar who visited Mali in 1352–53 and witnessed a masquerade performance at the royal court of its Muslim king.

By arousing self-interested nationalism, the energy crisis exacerbated fractures across the European community and the Atlantic alliance, preventing multilateral cooperative solutions from being pursued and opening further fissures in the global nonproliferation regime. By showcasing how France’s efforts to avert an oil-derived recession planted the seeds of future instability in the Persian Gulf, this episode reveals the interconnectedness of seemingly disparate areas in international affairs — namely energy, monetary policy, and nuclear proliferation. Moreover, it illustrates how government actions to address a problem have the potential to create new and format outline example enduring points of international conflict, thus highlighting the inherently chaotic nature of world “order.” Finally, it calls upon historians to decenter the United States when looking at global decision-making. In this case, the analysis of French and American archival documents uncovers the leading role that the French government played in Iran’s and Iraq’s acquisition of nuclear reactors and how this policy was, perhaps surprisingly, rooted in the French response to the energy crisis. And yet, with global monetary problems evoking the specter of the Great Depression, the West was growing increasingly divided over how to respond to OPEC’s challenge.

Love Essay: How to Write About Love

As Glasgow is hosting the COP26 UN summit on climate change this year, many of the events in this year’s research programme centre around the theme of global environmental, climate change and how to start a quote in an essay global justice. No worries – a synthesis paper is not some kind of an impossible task you can’t deal with…. Whenever you’re ready, just try to compromise with an extensive flow of words.

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